Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often referred to as the "Red Planet" because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.
In 17BBY the Galactic Empire signed a treaty with the United Nations citing that they would defend Earth from future attacks by the Confederate Remenant. Imperial personnel worked on terraforming the planet by introducing fauna from Earth, Naboo and Alderaan. Within a span of two months oxygen made up over thirty percent of the atmosphere, Water was also introduced and to keep it from freezing five mirrors the size of Eurasia were placed around Mars to reflect sunlight.